Osteoarthritis is a very common progressive disease caused by excessive wear and tear of our joints. It usually affects people the latter half of their lives affecting most commonly the spine, hips, knees and hands.

Signs and symptoms:

In this condition, the cushioning structures of our joints i.e the cartilage which normally functions to allow our bones to glide smoothly over one another becomes worn with time.
Unfortunately with the lack of cushioning, the bones begin to  rub together, causing inflammation at the joint surfaces swelling, pain and ultimately stiffness. This has a direct impact on the range of motion of the joints. In some severe cases, joint deformity can occur leading to poor alignment or Herberden’s node forming.


The eitiology of this condition is not conclusively known; but it is associated with aging. Although more commonly found in older populations, osteoarthritis can affect younger people as a result of a genetics (juvenile arthritis) or as a result of previous trauma to a joint, i.e a fracture. Experts  deem that mechanical, chemical and metabolic factors may also play a considerable role in this process. Another important consideration is an individual weight; as many of the joint such as the knees and hips are weight bearing joints, excessive loading with obesity can speed up this degenerative process.
Work ergonomics and hazards may also cause excessive stress on joints leading to an acceleration of arthritis of such joints.

What may be the preventive cares:

  • Try to avoid repetitive motions which may stress and wear joints down
  • Exercising often will keep joints supple and lubricated
  • Maintain a healthy weight and diet
  • Gentle and regular range of motion exercises can definitely increase your flexibility and reduce stiffness at joints

Recommended medications

There are many medications available, but among the most prominent:
1) Anti-inflammatory and non-steroidal drugs that can relieve you from your pain, swelling and inflammation. Although it is a good reliever of all these symptoms, its long term use can cause stomach problems, in the form of ulcers and bleeding and heart problems.
2) Acetaminophen (Tylenol) for reducing only pain, not inflammation. This also has some side effects including liver damage in alcoholic patients.

Advice from a  medical practitioner should always be taken before taking any medication.

Knee Arthritis – A Practical Approach


Knee Arthritis or Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) is a major cause of disability. It can drastically affect a person’s mobility and quality of life.

Knee arthritis is commonly known as a degenerative, wear and tear, age related condition.

While it is usually not a dangerous knee problem, this description reflects the idea that knee osteoarthritis is a condition that gets worse with time, often leading to knee replacment surgery.

Knee arthritis is associated with knee injury due to trauma, infection, and excessive body weight.

Singapore Knee Arthritis Treatments
Knee Arthritis Causes Knee Ache, Pain and Stiffness

Natural History – It Usually Gets Worse

Knee arthritis often develops over many years. In the initial stages, there can be periods of relatively little knee symptoms, interspersed with “flare-ups” of inflammation and pain. Patients learn to “live with” or ignore the occasional symptoms during this stage. The eventual progression to more severe and frequent pain can make the condition appear to have developed quickly.

A person’s lifestyle can also affect the progression of knee osteoarthritis. Repetitive stress injuries from squatting, kneeling, and lifting heavy objects can put more pressure on the knees, resulting in more frictional degeneration.

Athletes tend to place more stress on their knees, and also face the increased risk of traumatic knee injuries which predispose to knee arthritis.

3 Common Misconceptions About Knee Arthritis

  1. My pain is persistent. I’ve tried gels, painkillers, injections, and alternative treatments which did not work. There is no choice except for surgery.
  2. My pain is due to wear and tear, age related degeneration. Nothing much can be done, while it gets worse with time.
  3. My physical therapist and doctor both tell me to exercise more but I am not feeling any better. I am just not trying hard enough.

How Does Knee Arthritis Affect Us?

The usual symptoms of Arthritis in the Knees include:

  • Knee swelling
  • Knee pain which increases with activity but gets better after resting
  • Stiffening of the knees, especially in the morning or after a period of sitting
  • Decreased mobility of the knee, making it particularly difficult for a person to use the stairs, get in and out of the car, and even walk
  • Crackling sounds during knee movements

How Do We Diagnose Knee Arthritis?

The diagnosis of knee arthritis is usually quite straightforward to a doctor who knows about the history of your knee condition and performs thorough physical examination. The difficulty is almost always the “what to do” part after a diagnosis is made.

Imaging investigations such as an X-ray and MRIs can be helpful in assessing the severity of your condition, and also for evaluating other co-existing knee conditions.

Blood investigations and a knee aspiration can also be helpful if an infection or another cause of knee inflammation is suspected.

It is worthwhile to note that in Singapore, CPF Medisave can often be used to help pay for diagnostic scans of knee arthritis.

Standard Treatments for Knee Arthritis

Arthritis Medication

If the problem is not severe, appropriate medication can be utilised to treat and manage the symptoms of arthiritis.


It is one of the best recognized therapeutic management options for arthritis knees.

Under the supervision of a professional therapist, a patient can improve the motion and strength of the joints.
Exercise therapy, electrotherapy, mechanical aids like splints and braces, joint mobilisation techniques, hydrotherapy and gait re-education are all useful and effective methods available to help sufferers of knee pain.

Complimentary Therapy

Indian Yoga, Chinese Tai Chi, Homeopathic medicines, acupuncture, mind-body medicines and the traditional treatment balneotherapy and many more holistic treatments are becoming increasing popular.

Knee Arthritis Injections

Viscosupplementation is a type of treatment, in which ‘hyaluronic acid’ or artificial joint fluid is injected to the knee, so that it can act as a cushion the joint. Unfortunately this treatment gives the patient only short term relief and comes with possible risks.

Surgery For Knee Arthritis

Among the surgical options for treating knee arthritis, arthroscopy, osteotomy and knee replacement surgery are among the most common. As they differ in terms of potential risks and benefits, it is important to discuss with an experienced doctor your specific condition before deciding whether this is an option to consider.

A Practical Approach To Managing Knee Arthritis

Based on what medical science has to offer today, the majority of patients can enjoy active lives free from knee pain and avoid the need for knee replacement surgery.

In patients with knee aches, pain and stiffness, it is important to first consult a doctor for a clear diagnosis.

If your current treatment choice is based on a clinical diagnosis without any imaging investigations, it is a good idea to consider doing an X-ray or an MRI if your current treatment is not working.

Patients who have milder arthritis can focus physical therapy and prevent deterioration with nutritional solutions.

Where access to frequent physical therapy is difficult, analgesic rubs, plasters and gels can also be good options.

Patients with more severe knee arthritis can benefit from the non-invasive treatments available in many Singapore clinics.

Dr Terence Tan, MBBS,GDFM , The Pain Relief Clinic 

Knee Replacement Surgery – Singapore Health Video Series

Knee replacement surgery in Singapore is one of the most common bone surgeries in the country. Knee arthritis treatment is a decision that you and your doctor, an orthopaedic surgeon, carefully make together. More than 90% of people who have had their knees replaced see a huge improvement in pain and their ability to get around.

During Knee Replacement Surgery:

1)  Knee arthritis surgery expects to stay in the hospital for at least 1 to 4 days. Just before surgery, nurses might insert an intravenous line (IV) into a vein in your arm or hand to give you fluids and medicines.

2)  Knee arthritis doctors might get general anaesthesia to put you in a deep sleep during the surgery.

3)  Surgery can take 1 to 2 hours. Your doctor can do it a couple of ways.

4)  You might get what’s called “minimally invasive” surgery. In this case, the surgeon will make a shorter cut, around 4 to 6 inches.

Knee Osteoarthritis and Physiotherapy Management – SingHealth Healthy Living Series

Knee osteoarthritis is the occurrence of osteoarthritis (OA) in the knee joint. Osteoarthritis causes are such as degenerative joint disease, is a group of overlapping distinct diseases, which may have different etiologies but with similar biologic, morphologic, and clinical outcomes.

Knee osteoarthritis treatment doctors say Osteoarthritis is the most common disease of joints adults suffers from worldwide. It can be resolved by knee physiotherapy. Knee arthritis surgery takes specialized doctors to do so and thus making everything good for the patient.

SingHealth and Singapore General Hospital (SGH) have launched a new mobile phone application to help patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis.

There are mainly 2 types of arthritis which damage the joints of the patients in many ways:

1) Osteoarthritis

The most common type of arthritis, osteoarthritis involves wear-and-tear damage to your joint’s cartilage the slick coating on both ends of the bone. High damage can result in bone grinding directly, which cause pain and restricted movement of the joints. Best arthritis solutions in Singapore can help you relive your happy life again.

2) Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatologist in Singapore says that in rheumatoid arthritis, the body’s immune system attacks the capsule joint lining, a tough membrane that encloses all parts of the joint. This lining, known as the synovial membrane, becomes inflamed and swollen. Rheumatoid arthritis treatment Singapore is best by the specialists at Arthritis. You can think about the rheumatoid arthritis treatment in Singapore but do you know the rheumatoid causes and Symptoms which has taken you to this painful condition.

The main symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are:

1) Joint pain

2) Joint swelling, warmth and redness

3) Tiredness and lack of energy

4) Weight loss

5) Dry eyes as a result of inflammation

Rheumatologist in Singapore says that it can affect any joint in the body, although it is often felt in the small joints in the hands and feet first.

The main causes of rheumatoid arthritis are:

1) Age: Rheumatoid arthritis affects is most commonly found in people who are in the age group of 40 to 60.

2) Sex: Rheumatoid arthritis is more common in women as compared to men.

3) Genetics: Rheumatoid arthritis develops because of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as smoking and diet.

4) Weight: If your weight is much more than average weight, then you have a significantly greater chance of developing rheumatoid arthritis as compared to if you are a healthy weight.

Rheumatoid arthritis consultants in Singapore says that best arthritis solutions in Singapore can cure your rheumatoid arthritis in the best way thus making your life happy again.


Arthritis Symptoms

Before you know it, you may already have arthritis. Arthritis symptoms are sometimes common, recurring and can be easily ignored.

Arthritis can be under its way if you experience progressive stiffness and pain in the joints even without the chills, swelling and fever. Inflammation, pain swelling and stiffness in the arms, fingers, legs and wrists should already alarm you as these are common signs of arthritis. Continue reading “Arthritis Symptoms”